1. authority 权威，当局
Mexican authorities noticed a large number of hospitalizations and deaths among healthy adults.
One authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control.
2. equivalent 等价物
The digital credential would be a "voluntary trusted identity" system that would be the high-tech equivalent of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card.
3. alternative 替代物
They tend to keep a tighter hold on their purse and consider eating at home a realistic alternative.
4. substitute 代替物
Devoted concertgoers reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance.
5. community 具有共性的人 （社区，…届）
The approach would create a "walled garden" in cyberspace, with safe "neighborhoods" and bright "streetlights" to establish a sense of a trusted community.
6. transaction 交易
The individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with confidence.
7. mentality 心态
It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would eventually be a compulsory of Internet "driver's license" mentality.
8. skepticism 怀疑
The plan has also been greeted with skepticism by some computer security experts.
History and news become confused, and one's impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism.
9. executive 高级管理者
But Edward Dolman, the chief executive, says: "I'm pretty confident we're at the bottom."
10. irony 讽刺
This episode crystallizes the irony that, although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they rarely talk at home.
11. preference 偏爱
The first and more important is the consumer's growing preference for eating out.
12. predominance 优势
Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful.
13. pattern 图案，模式
The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late 1970s.
14. infrastructure 基础设施
Big retailers could profitably apply their scale, existing infrastructure and proven skills in the management of product ranges, logistics, and marketing intelligence.
15. inequity 不公正
In my own research, complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband.
16. humanity 人类，人性
He is publishing a paper which not only suggests that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about.
His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on.
17. revival 复活，复兴
Is there any chance that Cardus's criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote.
18. amateur 业余爱好者
Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.
19. corporation 公司
Corporations could use such approaches to introduce new routines.
It's a self-examination that has involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.
20. economy 经济，经济体
Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were, and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price.
21. adolescent 青少年
Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal.
Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence.
23. jury 陪审团
Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values.
24. qualification 资格
There is a principle that all citizens should meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy.
25. specialization 专门化
Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge.
26. prerequisite 先决条件
Professionalism has turned the acquisition of a doctoral degree into a prerequisite for a successful academic career.
27. connotation 内涵
The word "amateur" does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values.
28. prospect 前景
Losing a job is hurting: you don't skip down to the job center with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state.
29. prosperity 繁荣
"The Heart of the Matter," the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America.
30. intelligence 智力，智能
Jury duty was once limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education, and moral character.
Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results.
31. fitness 健康
But despite some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness.
32. seminar 讨论会
He spent many of his weekly seminars giving detailed instructions in techniques of observation.
33. duty 职责
Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.
34. advocate 倡导(vt.) 倡导者(n.)
Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.
He advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
35. benefactor 捐助者
These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science.
36. entrepreneur 企业家
These upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels.
37. chaos 混乱
Beethoven's music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence.
38. tension 张力
The tension between the universal and the particular has been immensely productive in anthropology.
39. obesity 肥胖
Of even greater concern is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define.
40. significance 重要性，意义
Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don't always think about the emotional significance of the day's events
41. institute 研究机构，（专门型）学院
According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have risen since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending.
42. institution 制度，机构，机制
He is that rare bird, a scientist who works independently of any institution.
There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements.
The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radical higher productivity and, as a result, radically higher standards of living.
The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the peculiar institution.
It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive.
Malinowski regarded all institutions of a society as intrinsically linked to each other, and stressed that every social or cultural phenomenon ought to be studied in its full context.
43. intellectual 知识分子，知识的
It is intellectuals, not America, who have become anti-intellectual.
44. manuscript 手稿
When I set out to revise and update this book, the original manuscript was five years old.
45. trait 特征
The trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated.
In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meaning or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had.
47. inference 推理
You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text may be significant to you.
48. legacy 遗产
Morgan's legacy would also be acknowledged by many Marxist anthropologists.
49. label 标签
Advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara ,H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely.
50. vogue 流行
I shall then proceed to characterize the system now in vogue in Western civilization.